|Americas Business Forum (ABF)
||Parallel event organized by the business community at the time of the
meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the negotiations of the Free Trade Area
of the Americas (FTAA).
Americas Trade and Sustainable
||Parallel event organized by civil society organizations at the time
of the meeting of Ministers Responsible for Trade in the Hemisphere participating in the negotiations of the Free Trade
Area of the Americas (FTAA).
Andean Community (CAN)
||Formerly known as the Andean Group (established in 1969) and the
Andean Common Market, the Andean Community (CAN) is a sub-regional organization made up of Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
Peru and Venezuela and the bodies and institutions comprising the Andean Integration System (AIS). The key objectives
of the Andean Community are: to promote the balanced and harmonious development of the member countries under equitable
conditions; to stimulate growth through integration and economic and social cooperation; to enhance participation in
the regional integration process with a view to the progressive formation of a Latin American common market; and to
strive for a steady improvement in the standard of living of their inhabitants.
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC)
||Established in November 1989, the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) is the premier forum for facilitating economic growth, cooperation, trade
and investment in the Asia-Pacific region. APEC members (21) are: Australia, Brunei Darussalam, Canada, Chile,
People’s Republic of China, Hong Kong, China, Indonesia, Japan, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mexico, New Zealand,
Papua New Guinea, Peru, the Philippines, the Russian Federation, Singapore, Chinese Taipei, Thailand, United States,
and Viet Nam.
Business facilitation measures
||In the context of the FTAA, set of measures approved by Ministers
Responsible for Trade at their Toronto Meeting, held on November 4, 1999. These include eight customs-related measures
and ten transparency-related measures, which can be found in Annexes II and III of the Toronto Ministerial Declaration.
|Caribbean Community and
Common Market (CARICOM)
||CARICOM is a grouping of 15 member countries that was established by
the Treaty of Chaguaramas in 1973 to promote economic integration through the free movement of goods and functional
cooperation in areas such as education and health. The Treaty was revised in 2001 to elevate the common market into
an economic union, the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME), which envisions the free movement of goods,
services, capital and labor, macroeconomic policy coordination and harmonization of laws and institutions. Member
(15) countries are: Antigua and Barbuda, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica,
Montserrat, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago.
The Bahamas is a member of the Community but not the Common Market. Associate members (3) include: Anguilla, British
Virgin Islands, Turks and Caicos Islands.
|Central American Common Market
||The Central American Common Market (CACM) was established on 13
December 1960 when Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, and Nicaragua signed the General Treaty of Central American
Economic Integration. Costa Rica acceded on 23 July 1962. In October 1993, the five CACM countries signed the
Guatemala Protocol, which amended the 1960 General Treaty. The Protocol redefines the objectives, principles and
stages of economic integration, and calls on members to establish a customs union. More specifically, the Guatemala
Protocol calls on members to bring the free trade area of the CACM into full operation through the gradual elimination
of tariff and non-tariff barriers, the granting of national treatment to intraregional trade, and the adoption of a
regional legal framework covering rules of origin, safeguards, unfair trade practices, intellectual property, services,
sanitary and phytosanitary measures, and standards and technical regulations.
|Common Market of the
||Established as the Common Market of the South (MERCOSUR) through the
Treaty of Asuncion on 26 March 1991. Between 1991 and 1995, MERCOSUR members, Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay,
engaged in a series of negotiations to establish a common external tariff, which took effect on 1 January 1995. The
deadline for full implementation of the customs union by all members in all sectors is 2006. The re-launching of
MERCOSUR’s integration process in 2000 called for closer macroeconomic coordination and other areas of prioritization
such as institutional strengthening, the common external tariff, dispute settlement, trade remedies and competition
policy, and investment incentives. Chile and Bolivia became associate members, respectively, in 1996 and 1997.
|European Union (EU)
||The European Union (EU) groups fifteen member states through a set of
common institutions where decisions on specific matters of joint interest are taken at the European level. It was
founded as the European Community after the Second World War to enhance political, economic and social co-operation
among its members. The ‘single market’, adopted in 1992 through the Treaty of Maastricht, is the core of the present
European Union. It includes the freedoms of movement for goods, services, people and capital and is underpinned by
a range of supporting policies. A common currency, the ‘Euro’, which replaced the old national currencies in 12 EU
countries, along with a European Central Bank, came into existence on 1 January 2002. Member states (15) include:
Austria; Belgium; Denmark; Finland; France; Germany; Greece; Ireland; Italy; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Portugal;
Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. Ten new member countries have been invited to
join the EU on 1 May 2004, namely: Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland,
Slovakia and Slovenia.
|Free Trade Area of the
||The Heads of State and Government of the 34 democracies in the
hemisphere agreed to construct a Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA), in which barriers to trade and investment
will be progressively eliminated. The negotiations were launched at the Summit of the Americas in Miami, U.S.A., in
December 1994. They agreed to complete negotiations towards this agreement by January 2005.
||The official public website for the negotiating process of the Free
Trade Area of the Americas.
|General Agreement on
Tariffs and Trade (GATT)
||The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT), has been superseded
as an international organization by the World Trade Organization. An updated General Agreement is now one of the
WTO’s agreements. See “World Trade Organization”, page 16.
|General Agreement on Trade
in Services (GATS)
||The General Agreement on Trade in Services (GATS) is the first
multilateral, legally binding set of rules covering international trade in services. The GATS came into effect in
January 1995 as an integral part of the WTO. The workings of the GATS are the responsibility of the Council for Trade
in Services, made up of representatives from all WTO members.
|Hemispheric Cooperation Program
||The Hemispheric Cooperation Program (HCP) aims to strengthen the
capacities of those countries seeking assistance to participate in the FTAA negotiations, implement their trade
commitments, and address the challenges and maximize the benefits of hemispheric integration, including productive
capacity and competitiveness in the region. The Program includes a mechanism to assist these countries to develop
national and/or sub-regional trade capacity building strategies that define, prioritize and articulate their needs
and programs pursuant to those strategies, and to identify sources of financial and non-financial support for
fulfilling these needs. The HCP was endorsed by the FTAA Ministers Responsible for Trade at their meeting in Quito,
in November 2002.
Bank (IDB or IADB)
||Established in 1959, the Inter-American Development Bank (IDB)
supports economic and social development and regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. It does so
mainly through lending to public institutions, but it also funds some private projects, typically in infrastructure
and capital markets development. Members (46) include: Argentina, Austria, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belgium, Belize,
Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Croatia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador,
Finland, France, Germany, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Israel, Italy, Jamaica, Japan, Mexico, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Norway, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain, Suriname, Sweden, Switzerland, Trinidad and
Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela.
|Latin American Association
for Integration (ALADI)
||The Latin American Association for Integration (ALADI) was established
by the Treaty of Montevideo in August 1980 and became operational in March 1981. The Association seeks to foster
economic cooperation among its members, including through the conclusion of regional trading agreements and sectoral
agreements. Members (12) include: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru,
Uruguay, and Venezuela. ALADI replaced the Latin American Free Trade Association (LAFTA; Asociación Latinoamericana
de Libre Comercio), which had been established in 1960 with the aim of developing a common market in Latin America.
||The periodic meeting of the Ministers Responsible for Trade of the
34 participating countries in the Free Trade Area of the Americas negotiations.
National Strategies to Strengthen Trade Capacities
||In the context of the FTAA Hemispheric Cooperation Program, countries
have developed national or regional strategies that define, prioritize, and articulate their needs related to
strengthening their capacity for: preparing for negotiations; implementing trade commitments and adjusting to
integration. In order to facilitate coordination and sharing of experiences, the strategies follow a common format
that was developed by the Consultative Group on Smaller Economies, with the assistance of the Tripartite Committee.
|Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development (OECD)
||The Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD)
groups 30 member countries in a unique forum to discuss, develop and refine economic and social policies. Established
December 1960 and came into being in September 1961. Members (30) include: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Czech
Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Luxembourg,
Mexico, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom
and the United States. http://www.oecd.org
|North American Free
Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
||The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is a comprehensive
free trade agreement involving Canada, Mexico, and the U.S., implemented on 1 January 1994. Its objectives include:
to eliminate barriers to trade in, and to facilitate the cross-border movement of goods and services; to promote
conditions of fair competition; to increase investment opportunities; to provide adequate and effective protection
and enforcement of intellectual property rights; to create effective procedures for the implementation and application
of the Agreement, for its joint administration and for the resolution of disputes; and to establish a framework for
further trilateral, regional and multilateral cooperation.
|Organization of American
||On 30 April 1948, the Charter of the Organization of American
States (OAS) was adopted by 21 nations of the hemisphere. It affirmed their commitment to common goals and respect
for each nation’s sovereignty. Since then, the OAS has expanded to include the nations of the Caribbean, as well
as Canada. Through the Summit of the Americas process, the Heads of State and Government in the hemisphere have
given the OAS important responsibilities and mandates, including: human rights; participation of civil society;
improving cooperation to address the problem of illegal drugs; supporting the process to create a Free Trade Area
of the Americas; education; justice and security. Members (35) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina, the Bahamas,
Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba (excluded from formal participation
since 1962), Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras,
Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the
Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States, Uruguay and Venezuela.
|Summit Implementation Review
||The Summit Implementation Review Group (SIRG) was created in March 1995
with the purpose of coordinating and implementing the mandates of the Miami Plan of Action. The SIRG is comprised of
the 34 democratically elected governments of the hemisphere, which are represented by their appointed National
Coordinators. The SIRG is responsible for reporting annually on the progress achieved in the fulfillment of the Plan
of Action to the Foreign Ministers. The Ministers review the information on the occasion of the Regular Session of
the OAS General Assembly.
Summit of the Americas
||The Summit of the Americas process, begun after the first Summit of
the Americas in December 1994, brings together the Heads of State and Government of the Western Hemisphere to discuss
common concerns, seek solutions and develop a shared vision for their future development of the region, be it economic,
social or political in nature.
Tariff elimination program
||Tariff elimination schedules of the countries participating in a trade
Trade capacity building
||Development and enhancement of trade-related capacities and core skills
of countries through technical cooperation and other forms of assistance to optimize their participation in
negotiations, implement their trade commitments, and address the challenges to maximize the benefits of hemispheric
integration. See Hemispheric Cooperation Program, page 13.
|Trade Negotiations Committee
||As part of the Free Trade Area of the Americas process, the Trade
Negotiations Committee (TNC), made up of Vice Ministers of Trade, oversees and manages the FTAA negotiating process.
The TNC has the responsibility of guiding the work of the FTAA negotiating groups and special committees, and of
deciding on the overall architecture of the agreement and institutional issues.
Treatment of the differences in the level of development
and size of the economies
||Principle that grants countries of differing levels of size and
development the possibility to obtain different treatment in the context of the FTAA negotiations. The guidelines for
this treatment are set out in the FTAA Trade Negotiations Committee document entitled “Guidelines or Directives for
the Treatment of the Differences in the Levels of Development and Size of Economies”.
Tripartite Committee (TPC)
||The Tripartite Committee (TPC) consists of the Inter-American
Development Bank (IDB), the Organization of American States (OAS) and the United Nations Economic Commission for
Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC). It provides analytical, technical and financial support to the FTAA process
and maintains the official FTAA Website. The Tripartite institutions also provide technical assistance related to
FTAA issues, particularly for the smaller economies of the Hemisphere.
|U.N. Economic Commission
for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
||The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC)
is one of the five regional commissions of the United Nations. It was founded for the purposes of contributing to
the economic development of Latin America, coordinating actions directed towards this end, and reinforcing economic
relationships among the countries and with the other nations of the world. The promotion of the region's social
development was later included among its primary objectives. Members (41) include: Antigua and Barbuda, Argentina,
Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, Dominican Republic,
Ecuador, El Salvador, France, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Italy, Jamaica, Mexico, Netherlands,
Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Portugal, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines,
Spain, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay and Venezuela. Associate members (7)
include: Anguilla, Aruba, British Virgin Islands, Montserrat, Netherlands Antilles, Puerto Rico and United States
Virgin Islands. http://www.eclac.org
|United Nations Commission
on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL)
||Established in December 1966, the United Nations Commission on
International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) aims to further the progressive harmonization and unification of international
trade law. Members (36) include: Argentina (alternating annually with Uruguay), Austria, Benin, Brazil, Burkina Faso,
Cameroon, Canada, China, Colombia, Fiji, France, Germany, Honduras, Hungary, India, Iran, Italy, Japan, Kenya,
Lithuania, Mexico, Morocco, Paraguay, Romania, Russian Federation, Rwanda, Sierra Leone, Singapore, Spain, Sudan,
Sweden, Thailand, The former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, Uganda, United Kingdom and the United States.
|United Nations Conference
on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)
||Established in 1964, the United Nations Conference on Trade and
Development (UNCTAD) aims to enhance the integration of developing countries into the world economy. UNCTAD is the
focal point within the United Nations for the integrated treatment of trade and development and interrelated issues
in the areas of finance, technology, investment and sustainable development. Members (192) include all members of
the United Nations plus the Holy See.
|Uruguay Round of
Multilateral Trade Negotiations
||Launched in September 1986, in Punta del Este, Uruguay, the eighth
round of multilateral trade negotiations encompassed a wide-ranging negotiating agenda that covered many new trade
policy issues. The resulting agreement, concluded in December 1993 and signed in April 1994, extended the multilateral
trading system into several new areas, notably trade in services and intellectual property rights, and brought the
important sectors of agriculture and textiles under multilateral trading rules. The Uruguay Round resulted in the
establishment of the World Trade Organization in January 1995.
|World Customs Organization
||Established in 1952 as the Customs Co-operation Council, the Council
adopted the working name World Customs Organization (WCO) in 1994, to more clearly reflect its transition to a truly
global intergovernmental institution. The WCO is an independent intergovernmental body whose mission is to enhance
the effectiveness and efficiency of customs administrations worldwide. With 159 member governments, it is the main
intergovernmental organization with competence over customs matters.
|World Intellectual Property
||Established in1967, the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO)
is an international organization dedicated to promoting the use and protection of literary, artistic and scientific
works. WIPO is one of the 16 specialized agencies in the United Nations system. It administers 23 international
treaties dealing with different aspects of intellectual property protection. The Organization counts 179 nations
|World Trade Organization
||The World Trade Organization (WTO) succeeded the General Agreement
on Tariff and Trade (GATT) on 1 January 1995. It is the only multilateral organization that serves as a negotiating
forum for the liberalization of trade, a body to oversee the implementation of multilaterally agreed and binding
trade rules and a forum for the resolution of trade disputes. The objective of the WTO is to promote the
liberalization and expansion of international trade in goods and services under conditions of legal certainty
and predictability. The WTO has 146 members.