Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization
Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft
Signatories1 to the Agreement
on Trade in Civil Aircraft, hereinafter referred to as "this Agreement";
Noting that Ministers on 12-14 September 1973 agreed the Tokyo Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations should achieve the expansion and ever-greater liberalization of world trade through, inter alia, the progressive dismantling of obstacles to trade and the improvement of
the international framework for the conduct of world trade;
Desiring to achieve maximum freedom of world trade in civil aircraft, parts and related equipment, including elimination of duties, and to the fullest extent possible, the reduction or elimination of trade restricting or distorting effects;
Desiring to encourage the continued technological development of the aeronautical industry on a world-wide basis;
Desiring to provide fair and equal competitive opportunities for their civil aircraft activities and for their producers to participate in the expansion of the world civil aircraft market;
Being mindful of the importance in the civil aircraft sector of their overall mutual economic and trade interests;
Recognizing that many Signatories view the aircraft sector as a particularly important component of economic and industrial policy;
Seeking to eliminate adverse effects on trade in civil aircraft resulting from governmental support in civil aircraft development, production, and marketing while recognizing that such governmental support, of itself,
would not be deemed a distortion of trade;
Desiring that their civil aircraft activities operate on a commercially competitive basis, and recognizing that government-industry relationships differ widely among them;
Recognizing their obligations and rights under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade, hereinafter referred to as "the GATT", and under other multilateral agreements negotiated under the auspices of the GATT;
Recognizing the need to provide for international notification, consultation, surveillance and dispute settlement procedures with a view to ensuring a fair, prompt and effective enforcement of the provisions of this Agreement and to maintain the balance of rights and obligations among them;
Desiring to establish an international framework governing conduct of trade in civil aircraft;
Hereby agree as follows:
Article 1: Product Coverage
1.1 This Agreement applies to the following products:
(a) all civil aircraft,
1.2 For the purposes of this Agreement "civil aircraft" means (a) all aircraft other than military aircraft and (b) all other products set out in Article 1.1 above.
(b) all civil aircraft engines and their parts and components,
(c) all other parts, components, and sub-assemblies of civil aircraft,
(d) all ground flight simulators and their parts and components, whether used as original or replacement equipment in the manufacture, repair, maintenance, rebuilding, modification or conversion of civil aircraft.
Article 2: Customs Duties and Other Charges
2.1 Signatories agree:
2.1.1 to eliminate by 1 January 1980, or by the date of entry into force of this Agreement, all customs duties and other charges 2 of any kind levied on, or in connection with, the importation of products,
classified for customs purposes under their respective tariff headings listed in the Annex, if such products are for use in a civil aircraft and incorporation therein, in the course of its manufacture, repair, maintenance, rebuilding, modification or conversion;
2.1.2 to eliminate by 1 January 1980, or by the date of entry into
force of this Agreement, all customs duties and other charges 3 of any kind levied on repairs on civil aircraft;
2.1.3 to incorporate in their respective GATT Schedules by 1 January 1980, or by the date of entry into force of this Agreement, duty-free or duty-exempt treatment for all products covered by Article 2.1.1 above and for all repairs covered by Article 2.1.2 above.
2.2 Each Signatory shall: (a) adopt or adapt an end-use system of customs administration to give effect to its obligations under Article 2.1 above; (b) ensure that its end-use system provides duty-free or duty-exempt treatment that is comparable to the treatment provided by other Signatories and is not an impediment to trade; and (c) inform other Signatories of its procedures for administering the end-use system.
Article 3: Technical Barriers to Trade
3.1 Signatories note that the provisions of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade apply to trade in civil aircraft. In addition, Signatories agree that civil aircraft certification requirements and specifications on operating and maintenance procedures shall be governed, as between Signatories, by the Provisions of the Agreement on Technical Barriers to Trade.
Article 4: Government-Directed Procurement, Mandatory Sub-Contracts and Inducements
4.1 Purchasers of civil aircraft should be free to select suppliers
on the basis of commercial and technological factors.
4.2 Signatories shall not require airlines, aircraft manufacturers, or other entities engaged in the purchase of civil aircraft, nor exert unreasonable pressure on them, to procure civil aircraft from any particular source, which would create discrimination against suppliers from any Signatory.
4.3 Signatories agree that the purchase of products covered by this Agreement should be made only on a competitive price, quality and delivery basis. In conjunction with the approval or awarding of procurement contracts
for products covered by this Agreement a Signatory may, however, require that its qualified firms be provided with access to business opportunities on a competitive basis and on terms no less favourable than those available to the qualified firms of other Signatories. 4
4.4 Signatories agree to avoid attaching inducements of any kind to the sale or purchase of civil aircraft from any particular source which would create discrimination against suppliers from any Signatory.
Article 5: Trade Restrictions
5.1 Signatories shall not apply quantitative restrictions (import quotas) or import licensing requirements to restrict imports of civil aircraft in a manner inconsistent with applicable provisions of the GATT. This does not preclude import monitoring or licensing systems consistent with the GATT.
5.2 Signatories shall not apply quantitative restrictions or export licensing or other similar requirements to restrict, for commercial or competitive reasons, exports of civil aircraft to other Signatories in a manner inconsistent with applicable provisions of the GATT.
Article 6: Government Support, Export Credits, and Aircraft Marketing
6.1 Signatories note that the provisions of the Agreement on Interpretation and Application of Articles VI, XVI and XXIII of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures) apply to trade in civil aircraft. They affirm that in their participation in, or support of, civil aircraft programmes they shall seek to avoid adverse
effects on trade in civil aircraft in the sense of Articles 8.3 and 8.4
of the Agreement on Subsidies and Countervailing Measures. They also shall take into account the special factors which apply in the aircraft sector, in particular the widespread governmental support in this area, their international
economic interests, and the desire of producers of all Signatories to participate in the expansion of the world civil aircraft market.
6.2 Signatories agree that pricing of civil aircraft should be based on a reasonable expectation of recoupment of all costs, including non-recurring programme costs, identifiable and pro-rated costs of military research and development on aircraft, components, and systems that are subsequently
applied to the production of such civil aircraft, average production costs, and financial costs.
Article 7: Regional and Local Governments
7.1 In addition to their other obligations under this Agreement, Signatories agree not to require or encourage, directly or indirectly, regional and local governments and authorities, non-governmental bodies, and other bodies to take action inconsistent with provisions of this Agreement.
Article 8: Surveillance, Review, Consultation, and Dispute Settlement
8.1 There shall be established a Committee on Trade in Civil Aircraft (hereinafter referred to as "the Committee") composed of representatives of all Signatories. The Committee shall elect its own Chairman. It shall meet as necessary,
but not less than once a year, for the purpose of affording Signatories the opportunity to consult on any matters relating to the operation of this Agreement, including developments in the civil aircraft industry, to determine whether amendments are required to ensure continuance of free and undistorted trade, to examine any matter for which it has not been
possible to find a satisfactory solution through bilateral consultations, and to carry out such responsibilities as are assigned to it under this Agreement, or by the Signatories.
8.2 The Committee shall review annually the implementation and operation of this Agreement taking into account the objectives thereof. The Committee shall annually inform the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT of developments during the period covered by such review.
8.3 Not later than the end of the third year from the entry into force of this Agreement and periodically thereafter, Signatories shall undertake further negotiations, with a view to broadening and improving this Agreement on the basis of mutual reciprocity.
8.4 The Committee may establish such subsidiary bodies as may be appropriate to keep under regular review the application of this Agreement to ensure a continuing balance of mutual advantages. In particular, it shall establish an appropriate subsidiary body in order to ensure a continuing balance of mutual advantages, reciprocity and equivalent results with regard to the implementation of the provisions of Article 2 above related to product coverage, the end-use systems, customs duties and other charges.
8.5 Each Signatory shall afford sympathetic consideration to and adequate opportunity for prompt consultation regarding representations made by another Signatory with respect to any matter affecting the operation of this Agreement.
8.6 Signatories recognize the desirability of consultations with other
Signatories in the Committee in order to seek a mutually acceptable solution
prior to the initiation of an investigation to determine the existence,
degree and effect of any alleged subsidy. In those exceptional circumstances in which no consultations occur before such domestic procedures are initiated, Signatories shall notify the Committee immediately of initiation of such procedures and enter into simultaneous consultations to seek a mutually agreed solution that would obviate the need for countervailing measures.
8.7 Should a Signatory consider that its trade interests in civil aircraft
manufacture, repair, maintenance, rebuilding, modification or conversion
have been or are likely to be adversely affected by any action by another
Signatory, it may request review of the matter by the Committee. Upon such
a request, the Committee shall convene within thirty days and shall review
the matter as quickly as possible with a view to resolving the issues involved
as promptly as possible and in particular prior to final resolution of
these issues elsewhere. In this connection the Committee may issue such
rulings or recommendations as may be appropriate. Such review shall be
without prejudice to the rights of Signatories under the GATT or under
instruments multilaterally negotiated under the auspices of the GATT, as
they affect trade in civil aircraft. For the purposes of aiding consideration
of the issues involved, under the GATT and such instruments, the Committee
may provide such technical assistance as may be appropriate.
8.8 Signatories agree that, with respect to any dispute related to a
matter covered by this Agreement, but not covered by other instruments
multilaterally negotiated under the auspices of the GATT, the provisions
of Articles XXII and XXIII of the General Agreement and the provisions
of the Understanding related to Notification, Consultation, Dispute Settlement and Surveillance shall be applied, mutatis mutandis, by the Signatories and the Committee for the purposes of seeking settlement of such dispute. These procedures shall also be applied for the settlement of any dispute related to a matter covered by this Agreement and by another instrument multilaterally negotiated under the auspices of the GATT, should the parties to the dispute so agree.
Article 9: Final Provisions
9.1 Acceptance and Accession
9.1.1 This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise by governments contracting parties to the GATT and by the European Economic Community.
9.2.1 Reservations may not be entered in respect of any of the provisions of this Agreement without the consent of the other Signatories.
9.3 Entry into Force
9.3.1 This Agreement shall enter into force on 1 January 1980 for
the governments 5 which have accepted or acceded to it by that date. For each other government it shall enter into force on the thirtieth day following the date of its acceptance or accession to this Agreement.
9.4 National Legislation
9.4.1 Each government accepting or acceding to this Agreement shall
ensure, not later than the date of entry into force of this Agreement for
it, the conformity of its laws, regulations and administrative procedures
with the provisions of this Agreement.
9.1.2 This Agreement shall be open for acceptance by signature or otherwise by governments having provisionally acceded to the GATT, on terms related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, which take into account rights and obligations in the instruments providing for their provisional accession.
9.1.3 This Agreement shall be open to accession by any other government on terms, related to the effective application of rights and obligations under this Agreement, to be agreed between that government and the Signatories, by the deposit with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT of an instrument of accession which states the terms so agreed.
9.1.4 In regard to acceptance, the provisions of Article XXVI:5 (a)
and (b) of the General Agreement would be applicable.
9.4.2 Each Signatory shall inform the Committee of any changes in its
laws and regulations relevant to this Agreement and in the administration
of such laws and regulations.
9.5.1 The Signatories may amend this Agreement, having regard, inter alia, to the experience gained in its implementation. Such an amendment, once the Signatories have concurred in accordance with the procedures established by the Committee, shall not come into force for any Signatory until it has been accepted by such Signatory.
9.6.1 Any Signatory may withdraw from this Agreement. The withdrawal shall take effect upon the expiration of twelve months from the day on which written notice of withdrawal is received by the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT. Any Signatory may upon such notification request an immediate meeting of the Committee.
9.7 Non-Application of this Agreement Between Particular Signatories
9.7.1 This Agreement shall not apply as between any two Signatories
if either of the Signatories, at the time either accepts or accedes to
this Agreement, does not consent to such application.
9.8.1 The Annex to this Agreement forms an integral part thereof.
9.9.1 This Agreement shall be serviced by the GATT secretariat.
9.10.1 This Agreement shall be deposited with the Director-General to the CONTRACTING PARTIES to the GATT who shall promptly furnish to each
Signatory and each contracting party to the GATT a certified copy thereof
and of each amendment thereto pursuant to Article 9.5 and a notification
of each acceptance thereof or accession thereto pursuant to Article 9.1,
or each withdrawal therefrom pursuant to Article 9.6.
9.11.1 This Agreement shall be registered in accordance with the provisions of Article 102 of the Charter of the United Nations.
Done at Geneva this twelfth day of April nineteen hundred and seventy-nine in a single copy, in the English and French languages, each text being authentic, except as otherwise specified with respect to the various lists in the Annex. 6
as amended by the Protocol (1986) amending the access to the Agreement on Trade in Civil Aircraft.
1. The product coverage is defined in Article 1 of the Agreement on
Trade in Civil Aircraft.
2. Signatories agree that products covered by the descriptions listed
below 7 and properly classified for customs purposes under the Customs Co-operation Council Nomenclature (Revised) headings of the Harmonized System codes shown alongside shall be accorded duty-free or duty-exempt treatment, if such products are for use in civil aircraft or ground flying trainers*
and for incorporation therein, in the course of their manufacture, repair,
maintenance, rebuilding, modification or conversion.
These products shall not include:
an incomplete or unfinished product, unless it has the essential character
of a complete or finished part, component, sub-assembly or item of equipment of a civil aircraft or ground flying trainer*, (e.g. an article which has a civil aircraft manufacturer's number),
materials in any form (e.g. sheets, plates, profile shapes, strips,
bars, pipes, tubes or other shapes) unless they have been cut to size or
shape and/or shaped for incorporation in civil aircraft or a ground flying
trainer* (e.g. an article which has a civil
aircraft manufacturer's part number),
raw materials and consumable goods.
4. For the purpose of this Annex, «Ex» has been included to indicate that the product description referred to does not exhaust the
entire range of products within the Customs Co-operation Council Nomenclature (Revised) headings or the Harmonized System codes listed below. 7
Continue on to Annex 4 (b): Agreement on Government Procurement
1 The term "Signatories" is hereinafter used to mean Parties to this Agreement.
2 "Other charges" shall have the same meaning as in Article II of the GATT.
3 "Other charges" shall have the same meaning as in Article II of the GATT.
4 Use of the phrase "access to business opportunities ... on terms no less favourable ..." does not mean that the amount of contracts awarded to the qualified firms of one Signatory entitles the qualified firms of other Signatories to contracts of a similar amount.
5 For the purpose of this Agreement, the term "government" is deemed to include the competent authorities of the European Economic Community.
6 On 25 March 1987, the Committee agreed that the Spanish text of the Agreement shall also be considered authentic.
7 The list is not reproduced.
* For the purposes of Article 1.1 of this Agreement «ground flight simulators» are to be regarded as ground flying trainers as provided for under 8805.20 of the Harmonized System.